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The scope of this post is to discuss options for septic system maintenance and septic system failure. Septic systems function, primarily by anaerobic bacterial action. Sewage leaves the house or place of business and is stored in the septic tank until the anaerobic bacteria breaks the sewage down. Then it is conveyed to the distribution box in the form of effluent.
The distribution box is a second tank in the septic system between the septic tank and the leach field. Effluent flows from the septic tank to the distribution box and to the various number of leaching lines in the leach field.
In the leach field, anaerobic bacteria continues breaking down, and digesting solids that have left the septic tank. The leach field is originally tasked with absorbing effluent. However, it was discovered that solids, still suspended in the effluent are found in the leach field, where the anaerobic bacteria is still attempting to digest them.
Notice, to the bottom of the left side of the septic tank, there is an inordinate amount of sludge. Even still, effluent carries with it, suspended particulate solids that do not break down or disappear under the digestive action of anaerobic bacteria. The sludge and scum level floating in the effluent are testimony to the inefficient performance of an anaerobic septic system. This inefficiency is why our septic system needs maintaining.
You will also notice the three risers on the top of the tank. Many septic tanks do not have this feature. There are, however, three covers you will need to unearth to provide maintenance service to your tank. Rather than dig these up every 1 - 3 years, install risers and cap them. This will make pumping your tank a lot easier and quicker.
Try as we might, the filter tee is the last defense in protecting our leach field and distribution box from solids accumulating in the distribution box or in the leaching lines. This will shut down a septic system before its' time. If the problem is sludge and grease buildup in a failed leach field, this can be remedied by jetting. Hydro jetting or water jetting can be done as a diagnostic step toward remediation. However, with age, there exist a very strong possibility the leach field is not going to be functional after hydro jetting. Here is why and what you need to do.